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Reference: CC Taiwan

Required fields for various data type using Darwin Core (DwC)

A good dataset must be reusable (interoperable). If more fields of data can be provided, the quality and value of the data can be improved. In any case, the dataset must at least have the following The Darwin Core fields:


DwCData typeDefinitionCommentsExample
taxonIDTaxonAn identifier for the set of taxon information (data associated with the Taxon class). May be a global unique identifier or an identifier specific to the data set.NA32567,
scientificNameTaxonThe full scientific name, with authorship and date information if known. When forming part of an Identification, this should be the name in lowest level taxonomic rank that can be determined.Coleoptera (order). Manis (genus). Ctenomys sociabilis (genus + specificEpithet). Roptrocerus typographi (Györfi, 1952) (genus + specificEpithet + scientificNameAuthorship).


DwCData typeDefinitionCommentsExample
occurrenceIDOccurrenceUnique identifier for the occurrenceRecommended best practice is to use a persistent, globally unique identifier., 000866d2-c177-4648-a200-ead4007051b9, urn:catalog:UWBM:Bird:89776
basisOfRecordRecord-levelThe specific nature and type of data record, it is recommended to use Darwin Core’s control vocabularySample source, sample typePreservedSepcimen, FossilSpecimen, LivingSpecimen, HumanObservation, MachineObservation
eventDateEvent Record date of this occurrence data Sampling date, sampling time 1994-11-05 indicates single day,1996-06 indicates whole month
individualCountOccurrenceThe number of individuals that existed when the occurrence was recorded.Numbers0, 1, 25
localityLocationSampling or observation siteSiteGuanyin Mountain, Caribbean Sea, Florida
verbatimLatitude LocationLatitude in any coordinate systemLatitude41d 16'N
verbatimLongitudeLocationLongitude in any coordinate sysmtem Longitude 121d 10' 34" W
verbatimCoordinateSystemLocationCoordinate unit "decimal degrees", "degrees decimal minutes", "degrees minutes seconds"
geodeticDatumLocationRecommended to use the EPSG code of the SRS, if known or use a controlled vocabulary for the name or code of the geodetic datum. "EPSG:4326", "WGS84", "EPSG:3826" (TWD97 / TM2 臺灣), "EPSG:3828"(TWD67 / TM2 臺灣)

Sampling event

DwCData typeDefinitionCommentsExamples
eventIDEventSampling event ID ID32567
eventDateEventDate of data collectionSampling date1994-11-05 indicates single day,1996-06 indicates whole month
samplingProtocolEventSampling method or name, description, references Materials and methods, Sampling methods "UV light trap", "mist net", "bottom trawl", "ad hoc observation",, "Takats et al. 2001. Guidelines for Nocturnal Owl Monitoring in North America."


Specification of open data submission for Biodiversity-related projects funded by MOST

Taiwan Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) is responsible for the following specific aims in “Biodiversity Action Plan”:

  • D12010 “Establishment of a biodiversity information exchange mechanism, database establishment and integration of various types and institutions, and regularly updating the contents of various databases”
  • D21010 “Maintenance and update of biodiversity monitoring data and information management system”
  • Since 2012, it is required that research projects must submit the report within three months after the project ended, along with the ecological distribution data generated during the research process (see Note 1). The specification of data submission has been adjusted as follows:

    1. The data referred to in this specification are the data generated during the implementation of the research project subsidized by MOST, including (but not limited to) species occurrence records (see Note 2), morphological measurements, gene sequences, environmental factor measurements, species checklists, sampling sites, description, other associated information, and more.
    2. For the technical details of data management and submission, the data management unit designated by the MOST will hold regular briefing sessions and update online resource explanations.
    3. When submitting data to the database, the PI may choose the disclosure conditions, including retention period (immediate disclosure, disclosure after two years, disclosure after three years), disclosure scope (Taiwan or global), and authorization conditions. The data will be made public when the conditions are met.
    4. The management and submission of research data are part of the project; the status and quality of the data submission (see Note 3) will be included in the review and as reference for future research project applications.
    5. Research result and paper published using publicly available data should appropriately cite the data used (including contribution of the data provider), for promotion of open data in academic research.


    1. Data preservation in scientific research has made remarkable progress in Europe and United States in recent years supporting the open data movement and open government initiative: — National Science Foundation of the United States has begun to require research project proposal to specify data management plan and budget since 2011 (NSF, 2013). — European Union defines “open access” as “free access to research reports and original data”, and require data management plan in the research project to state the openness of data and the maintenance cost (European Union, 2018).
    2. Species occurrence records are defined as those obtained through 1) human or automated collection and observation, 2) organism was identified, and 3) data indicating the time, location, and other information relevant to the occurrence.
    3. In the process of uploading data, it is recommended to use the GBIF Data Validator ( for inspection of basic data quality.


  • European Union, 2018. Participant Portal H2020 Online Manual.
  • NSF, 2013. Dissemination and Sharing of Research Results. Available at:
  • MOST data and document submission

    Organize and submit biodiversity data in accordance with international data standards, facilitate the sharing and citation of data among academic peers, and improve research standards.

    Data management process @TaiBIF, the above is handled in accordance with the Taiwan Ministry of Science and Technology’s “Specifications for the Release of Species Distribution Data for Biodiversity and Long-term Ecological Research Programs”
    1. Filling metadata
    Once a project was approved to be funded by MOST, fill in the metadata (e.g., contact person, time, research geographic scope) for the research, so that others can better grasp the content of the dataset.
    2. Does the source data contain species data?
    Whether the research data includes species occurrence records (Occurrence), species list (Checklist) or survey activities (Sampling event). If yes, publish the data to TaiBIF.
    3. Upload report of the research project
    After organizing and standardizing the collected research data, submit the project report to MOST. When the paper is published or time limit for data disclosure is reached, the data must be released.
    4. Data validation
    Clean up and standardize the data by following the Darwin Core. If prefer, use data validation tools to assist with the data clean up.
    5. Upload using IPT
    Use the TaiBIF IPT (Integrated Publishing Toolkit) to upload data correspond to the relevant fields according to the data content.
    6. Update metadata
    Fill in the metadata, including the project name, data type, authorization method (creative CC), project summary, data provider, contact person and other information.
    7. Publish and open data
    After confirming that the information is filled correctly, upload and publish it to TaiBIF. Congratulations on the successful release of the data!