46國簽《倫敦宣言》 誓言終結野生動物非法交易

摘譯自2014年2月14日ENS英國,倫敦報導;鄒敏惠編譯;蔡麗伶審校

野生動物盜獵者小心了!14日在倫敦舉行的野生動物非法貿易大會上,來自全球46國的領導人達成共識,同意採取「具決定性且急迫的手段」,彼此協調合作,搶救大象、犀牛、老虎等多種瀕危動物。

14日舉行的倫敦野生動物非法貿易大會。圖片來源:英國外交及聯邦事務部(Foreign and Commonwealth Office)

宣讀《倫敦宣言》 46國立下政治承諾

會議主席由英國外交大臣William Hague擔任,劍橋公爵威廉王子和哈利王子也應邀出席。會議最終通過並宣讀了《倫敦宣言》誓言根除野生動物製品的非法市場、執行有效且合法的防禦手段、加強執法,並在野生動物犯罪頻繁的社區提倡永續的生計方式。

與會者也承諾在執行面投入更多財務資源,並對於此次的重大政治承諾定期評估進展波札那、查德、中國、加彭、衣索比亞、俄羅斯、坦尚尼亞、越南和美國等關鍵國家也均在會中承諾,將中止犀角、老虎產品和象牙等1年達190億產值的非法貿易。

各國一致體認嚴重性 《華盛頓公約》也相挺

外交大臣Hague表示,「我們正面臨一項前所未見的危機,這麼說一點都不誇張。這絕對不只是對環境的危害而已,這已變成全球性的犯罪產業,緊列於毒品、槍械和人口販賣之後。」

CITES(瀕危物種國際貿易公約,又稱華盛頓公約)的與會,是此次會議成功的關鍵。Hague說:「CITES是打擊野生動物非法貿易的重量級武器,這是唯一將眾多國際團體號召而來,共同關注這項議題的約束力量,其全球性的影響力正是力量所在。」

CITES秘書長John Scanlon表示樂見《倫敦宣言》及會議上明確達成的政治承諾。他說:「會議備忘錄和以合作模式打擊野生動物非法貿易的精神,讓我們在令人沮喪的現況中見到一線曙光。」

非洲國家另提公民提案 保護非洲象

波札那、查德、加彭和坦尚尼亞總統,以及衣索比亞外交部長在會議中宣布一項「大象保護公民提案」Elephant Protection Initiative,確保非洲象的保護計畫有來自政府及民間穩定資金,並在會中得到英國慈善組織Stop Ivory的贊助,初步獲得200萬啟動基金。

在這項大象保護公民提案中,非洲多個國家領導人一致宣誓,至少在10年內停止任何象牙製品的買賣,並關閉各自的國內象牙市場。

為了保護中非的非洲象,查德總統Idriss Déby則是宣布銷毀該國的象牙庫存。Déby還將在2月21日親自率內閣到扎庫馬國家公園,銷毀過去5年積存的1.2公噸象牙。這項焚燒行動也是扎庫馬國家公園成立50周年的紀念活動之一,其他活動還包括紀念1998年以來的23名殉職守衛。

波札那則是為了檢視倫敦宣言的實踐情況,將在2015年舉行回顧會議。

中國影星成龍也到場參與,與威廉王子會晤。(圖:Foreign and Commonwealth Office)

WWF英國分會的首席物種顧問Heather Sohl表示,「此次倫敦會議傳達出一項重要訊息:野生動物犯罪是重罪,我們必須盡力阻止。野生動物交易的行為也不只是危及物種數量,還會對保護區管理員造成生命威脅,國家的經濟發展也會受致命傷,社會也將瀰漫貪污風氣。總而言之,野生動物貿易已非國內區域間的危機,而是國際關注的重大事件。」

Forty-Six Nations Agree to Stamp Out Illegal Wildlife Trade
LONDON, UK, February 14, 2014 (ENS)

Wildlife poachers watch out! At the Illegal Wildlife Trade Conference, held Thursday in London, world leaders from 46 nations agreed on“decisive and urgent action” in a concerted effort to pull elephants, rhinos, tigers and other endangered species back from the brink of extinction.

The conference, chaired by British Foreign Secretary William Hague and attended by the Prince of Wales, the Duke of Cambridge and Prince Harry, adopted the London Declaration by acclamation.

It pledges measures to eradicate markets for illegal wildlife products, ensure effective legal deterrents, strengthen law enforcement, and support sustainable livelihoods for communities affected by wildlife crime. Conference participants committed more financial resources to implement these measures, and to assess progress made in delivering on these political commitments.

Key nations, including Botswana, Chad, China, Gabon, Ethiopia, Indonesia, Russia, Tanzania, Vietnam and the United States committed to end the illegal trade in rhino horn, tiger parts and elephant tusks that fuels criminal activity worth over $19 billion each year.

Secretary Hague declared, “It is no exaggeration to say that we are facing an unprecedented crisis. But this is not just an environmental crisis. This is now a global criminal industry, ranked alongside drugs, arms and people trafficking.”

The involvement of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species is key to the success of this conservation effort, said Secretary Hague. “We will recognize that CITES is a fantastic weapon in the fight against the illegal wildlife trade. It is the only body that draws the whole of the international community together on this issue. Its strength is that it is universal.”

“We welcome the London Declaration and the level of political commitment that is evident here in London,” said CITES Secretary-General John Scanlon. “The added momentum generated from this meeting, coupled with the spirit of taking a collaborative approach to combating the illegal wildlife trade, gives us hope that we can reverse the current disturbing trends.”

The conference heard from the Presidents of Botswana, Chad, Gabon and Tanzania, and the foreign minister of Ethiopia, who announced theElephant Protection Initiative to secure new funding from private and public sources for implementation of the African Elephant Action Plan.

Under the Elephant Protection Initiative, these African leaders all pledged to refrain from any trade in ivory products for a minimum of 10 years and to close their existing domestic ivory markets.

The British charity Stop Ivory announced it will make an initial $2 million available to launch the Elephant Protection Initiative.

Chad’s President Idriss Déby announced the destruction of his country’s ivory stockpile to protect Central Africa’s savannah elephants. On February 21 President Déby will lead his cabinet to Zakouma National Park for the burning of 1.2 tons of ivory that have been stockpiled in Chad over the past five years. The ivory burn is part of Zakouma National Park’s 50th anniversary event, which will commemorate the 23 guards slain on duty at Zakouma since 1998.

Botswana will host a conference in early 2015 to review progress against the commitments made in the London Declaration.

Heather Sohl, chief species advisor at WWF-UK, said, “Governments signing the London Declaration today sent a strong message: wildlife crime is a serious crime and it must be stopped. This trafficking devastates species populations, but also takes the lives of rangers, impedes countries’ economic development and destabilises society by driving corruption. This is a crisis, not just at a national or regional scale, but one that demands urgent global attention.”

※ 全文及圖片詳見:ENS

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